ATP plans to train 20,000 pilots

The new Texas location augments the firm’s 30-year presence in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. The 13,875-square-foot facility includes classroom space, dedicated pilot briefing space, an advanced simulator bay with multiple flight training devices, and an adjoining 12,000-square-foot maintenance center.

The training center was developed for efficiency with an eye on the ATP Airline Career Pilot Program. “The increased capabilities of the new Arlington flight training center will be crucial in meeting the training demands of the post-pandemic pilot shortage,” said ATP Director of Marketing Michael Arnold.

ATP currently operates 62 locations and plans to train 20,000 airline pilots by 2030. The company is accepting delivery of 100 Piper Archer training aircraft ordered in 2018 and has hiring partnerships with 30 regional airlines.

David Tulis

David Tulis

Associate Editor Web/ePilot

AOPA Associate Editor Web/ePilot David Tulis joined AOPA in 2015 and is a private pilot with single-engine land and sea ratings and a tailwheel endorsement. He is also a certificated remote pilot and co-host of the award-winning AOPA Hangar Talk podcast. David enjoys vintage aircraft and photography.

Aircraft Maintenance: Repair or replace your autopilot?

Photo courtesy of Jeff Simon

You trust that that you can hand control over to your electronic co-pilot while you divert your attention to other tasks, and it will keep the aircraft flying with the “sunny side up” until your focus returns to the primary instruments. The relationship breaks down when that trust is broken by reliability issues, especially issues of intermittent failure. This is especially true for pilots flying under instrument flight rules. Ultimately, you can’t safely share the workload in the cockpit if you don’t trust your autopilot.

As our aircraft age, so do the autopilots that most GA aircraft were delivered with from the factory. Because of the high cost of adding an autopilot, the majority of the autopilots in the fleet are those that were either added by the factory, or installations made long ago during the heyday of GA. Brands such as BendixKing (or King), ARC, Century Flight Systems Inc., and OEM-branded versions of these autopilots remain in service to this day, and are often as old as (or older than) the pilots flying them.

When an older autopilot starts having trouble, the discussion with the avionics shop frequently turns to the question of whether to repair or replace. Phrases such as, “How much money do you want to throw at a 40-year-old autopilot?” or “We can fix it, but you’ll probably be back for something else soon,” are read from the same script at avionics shops across the country.

From the avionics shop’s perspective, it makes sense. Troubleshooting old autopilots is time-consuming and messy, and rarely results in a happy customer when the bill comes. Enter the shiny new baby: replacement. Today’s modern, digital autopilots are reliable and full of additional features such as altitude preselect, vertical speed preselect, indicated airspeed hold, envelope protection/alerting, and emergency level mode. For the shops, installation is a known commodity, and they stand to make money on both the sale of the hardware and the installation labor.

For the aircraft owner, upgrading offers reliability and advanced features. However, the cost of upgrading can be high. Prices for entry-level autopilots such as the BendixKing AeroCruze 100 (formerly TruTrak) start at just over $5,000 and advanced autopilots such as the Genesys Aerosystems S-TEC 3100 can easily exceed $20,000 with three-axis options. Considering the features and capability these systems add to the aircraft, it’s not a bad deal. However, you must factor in installation costs to get the full picture of what each system will really cost you in the end. For example, I was quoted over $15,000 in labor for an advanced autopilot installation on my Bonanza. My old autopilot seemed just fine after reading that quote.

With total installed costs ranging from just under $10,000 to more than $40,000 for a new autopilot, there are cases where repairing your legacy autopilot makes sense. Here are some questions to consider:

  • Does your current autopilot have the basic functionality to support your mission?
  • Has it been generally reliable?
  • Are parts and support available?
  • Is your local avionics shop willing to work on it?
  • How long do you intend to own your aircraft?

The answers to these questions will help you decide if repairing your current autopilot is worthwhile, or if the new features and reliability of a new autopilot make more sense, and if the expense can be amortized over your ownership of the aircraft.

Despite the advanced features offered by newer autopilots, many legacy autopilots remain well-equipped to support single-pilot IFR operations when coupled with modern WAAS navigators and displays with GPS Steering (GPSS). My 1975 Century III autopilot, for example, can fly just about any flight path that my Avidyne IFD550 navigator and Aspen Evolution primary flight display can throw at it, including holds and coupled approaches with vertical guidance down to minimums. In a case like this, the decision to upgrade is more about reliability than features, so it makes sense to compare the advice from your avionics shop with a second opinion from people who make their living keeping older autopilots going.

My personal go-to for this expertise is Autopilots Central in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It’s a family-run business with Alan and Susan Sparks at the helm, and the folks under their roof probably know more about legacy autopilot maintenance than anyone on the planet. If Alan’s team can’t fix your autopilot, I’m guessing nobody can. And if they advise you to let it go (which they sometimes do), then I would follow their advice as well.

I spent some time with Alan recently when one of my servos was acting up and didn’t always want to release when the autopilot was turned off. Alan quickly found the source of the problem: a tiny leaf spring “shield” that had broken after 40-plus years in service. I’d had the servo open several times and couldn’t even see the offending part (because it was snapped off). Alan had it fixed and back to me ASAP, ready for more years of service. On the flip side, I also sent him my Century I unit that I use as a combination turn and back instrument and backup autopilot in the airplane. Every once in a while, it was having trouble getting started when power was applied. Once going, it never failed, but I wanted him to check it. In this case, Alan advised that it really wasn’t repairable. If the problem persisted, he recommended removing it and swapping back to a simple turn and bank indicator.

It’s critical that you trust your autopilot. When that trust is broken, difficult and expensive decisions must be made. So, make two calls: one to your avionics shop and another to a place that specializes in autopilot repair. Armed with advice from both sides, you’ll be well equipped to make your own call to repair or replace. Until next time, I hope you and your families remain safe and healthy and wish you blue skies.

Pilots of the Mahal

Israel's first fighter squadron flew Avia S-199 fighter aircraft, which were built in Czechsolvakia and based on the German Messerschmitt Bf 109. Since 2006, every U.S. president has proclaimed May as “Jewish American Heritage Month,” that month chosen to honor the day Israeli independence was proclaimed, May 14, 1948. Today, the holiday follows the Hebrew calendar and can fall in April or May. Perhaps American aviators should take the month to learn about the brave pilots of the Mahal.

Jewish settlers from Europe, especially from what is now Russia, emigrated to the Middle Eastern region known as Palestine starting in the late 1800s, when it was part of the Ottoman Empire. From 1920 to 1948, the region was governed as the British Mandate for Palestine, instituted after World War I when the Ottoman Empire collapsed. After the horrors of World War II, the United Nations approved a plan to create independent Arab and Jewish states in Palestine. This “partition” was accepted by the Jews, but rejected by the Arab people and opposed by the surrounding nations. The day after the state of Israel was declared, the countries of Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria attacked Israeli forces and Jewish settlements. The conflict became known in Israel as the “War of Independence,” and elsewhere as the “Arab-Israeli War of 1948.”

The outnumbered Israeli forces sought help from Jewish organizations around the world and a group known as the Mahal (or Machal), composed of international volunteers, was established. These volunteers were primarily Jews, but also gentiles, who fought for the cause alongside the Israelis. A sub-group of the Mahal were pilots and mechanics who smuggled surplus World War II aircraft into the country and flew military and logistical missions during the war.

A Nazi airplane for a Jewish nation

Many nations enforced an arms embargo, but Czechoslovakia allowed weapons, ammunition, and the Avia S–199 fighter aircraft to be purchased, although surreptitiously, and shipped to Israel. The S–199 was based on the German Messerschmitt Bf 109, which the Avia company built for Germany throughout World War II. The Czechs attached a Junkers engine to the Bf 109 airframe, as the original Daimler-Benz engines were unavailable, and the result was a fighter with overall poor characteristics, performance, and reliability. Israel would take what it could get and 25 of the airplanes were bought, with the first shipment arriving six days after independence was declared. These few airplanes formed Israel’s first fighter squadron. A few days later, an Israeli pilot scored the Israeli Air Force’s first aerial victory. The irony of Jewish pilots flying “Nazi aircraft” to establish a Jewish homeland was not lost on the pilots.

The nascent air force commandeered whatever aircraft it could find, and photos of Piper Cubs being used for reconnaissance and a Beechcraft Bonanza with bombs under its wing can be found in the history books.

Many Jewish Americans contributed to the new nation’s struggle. Mickey Marcus, a U.S. Army colonel, commanded units of the Israel Defense Forces and became Israel’s first general. Al Schwimmer, an American aerospace engineer, organized the smuggling of surplus aircraft and recruited crews to fly them. He was able to buy numerous cargo aircraft, plus a few Boeing B–17 bombers, and get the aircraft out of the United States and across the Atlantic to Israel. Many of these pilots would become the first members of the Israeli Air Force. Louis Lenart, a former U.S. Marine Corps pilot, was recruited by Schwimmer to fly S–199 fighters through the British blockade from Czechoslovakia to Israel. As a battle-tested pilot, he commanded the first mission of Israeli aircraft in the war, leading four aircraft to attack Egyptian forces advancing on Tel Aviv. After the war, Lenart airlifted Iraqi Jews to Israel and was a pilot for the national airline, El Al.

To learn more about the Mahal pilots in Israel, there are a few good books on the subject in print and available at bookstores and Amazon. For an evening’s entertainment, view one of the feature or documentary films about the Mahal and the creation of Israel. Or, get out to visit one of the numerous Jewish museums in the United States.

Training Tip: The fix is in

Those hot- and cold-running responses probably reflect experience. Aircraft A may have proved its reliability under trying circumstances, or just feels good to fly. Aircraft B tends toward the temperamental and frequently finds itself on the repair shop’s “squawk sheet,” making the relationship complicated.

If you admire your trainer’s smooth-running engine, sweetly harmonized controls, and the confidence flying it gives you, send some love to the aircraft maintenance crew at your FBO, flying club, or flight school.

Typically, people who fly training aircraft and those who keep trainers flying remain mutually anonymous. If a trainer needs downtime, students usually get the word from their instructor that the aircraft will be out for new avionics, for an annual or 100-hour inspection, or to have an airworthiness directive resolved. Then you wait for the magic moment when your flying can resume.

Perhaps you have felt temptation to visit your aircraft in sick bay—but it looked like a pretty serious operation going on in there, with tools and parts spread around, maybe even with the aircraft up on jacks as mechanics labored. You were not sure it was a good time to walk over and introduce yourself.

Crossing that threshold (if permitted) is worth a try. The worst that can happen is that the mechanics tell you that now is not a good time to chat; otherwise, you might learn a lot. You may even discover on breaking the ice that the mechanic flies the aircraft you fly as a pilot or a student pilot like you.

A student pilot interested in a more formal introduction to aviation’s maintenance side may find other opportunities available. Mechanics are favorite ground-school guests for question-and-answer sessions. Some flying clubs delegate a member to act as maintenance officer. This individual serves as a liaison between the club and the repair shop, coordinating inspections, repairs, and equipment upgrades, and reporting back to the membership at club meetings. This job may involve researching maintenance issues—as 2020 approached, a big issue was how to address the ADS-B mandate—and making recommendations.

If the club maintenance officer’s post is vacant, consider taking it on. It will be time well spent in service to your aviation community and possibly a great first step toward becoming a future aircraft owner.

Mercy Medical Angels virtual event to honor pilots, raise funds

“For the past 49 years, Mercy Medical Angels has provided more than 250,000 patient trips using transportation on the ground with gas cards, bus and train tickets and in the air with commercial airlines and volunteer pilots,” according to the group. Transportation is also included for patients’ caregivers. In 2020, Mercy Medical Angels provided 24,520 trips for patients nationwide.

The event will not only honor pilots, but also those who have helped support ground transportation, and will serve as a fundraiser for the organization.

“Our goal is to raise funds to continue our mission of removing the barrier to medical care with transportation on the ground and in the air,” the group said.

The Angel Wings and Wheels Virtual Celebration will stream starting at 5 p.m. Eastern time. Register for the event on the Mercy Medical Angels website.

Alyssa J. Miller

Alyssa J. Cobb

AOPA Senior Director of eMedia and Online Managing Editor

AOPA Senior Director of eMedia and Online Managing Editor Alyssa J. Cobb began working at AOPA in 2004, is a flight instructor, and loves flying her Cessna 170B with her husband and son. Alyssa is also co-host of AOPA Live This Week.

CDC greenlights rapid COVID-19 test for international travelers

The letter explained that a significant portion of international general and business aviation is conducted on short notice. And while the CDC requires a negative test for flight crews and passengers within three days before boarding a flight to the United States, availability and logistics in some foreign locations can make such compliance challenging.

The letter added that “current international protocols are burdensome, time consuming, and have inherent limitations in processing large numbers of travelers.”

The CDC updated its guidance to permit the use of certain self-tests (often referred to as “home tests”), with proper oversight, to meet its pre-departure requirements. Compliant self-test kits must include a telehealth component affiliated with the manufacturer, which will provide real-time remote supervision of the test and ensure that results are recorded by the proper authorities in the United States.

“Many businesses and individuals have come to appreciate the efficiency and flexibility of general aviation for their international travel,” said Murray Huling, AOPA vice president of regulatory affairs. “Use of these self-testing kits, which can produce results in as little as 15 minutes, will help alleviate undue burden on crew and passengers that may have difficulty in finding a test that allows them to stay compliant with the CDC. We applaud this move that strikes an important balance between safety and convenience.”

Crewmembers must be able to review and confirm the identity and results of each passenger. Passengers are also required to provide documentation of test results to officials at the port of entry, and to local or state health departments, if requested.

The guidance also adds that positive test results must be reported to proper authorities at the location of the crewmember or passenger. In the event of a positive test, the telehealth provider is also asked to counsel the traveler on what they and close contacts should do.

The updated guidance applies to all aviation, not just GA, and to U.S. citizens and noncitizens alike.

The CDC added that any self-test must be a SARS-CoV-2 viral test authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Inconclusive test results would require a more extensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, with additional protections to ensure passengers displaying symptoms of COVID-19 are ineligible for the expedited testing protocol.

Five ways aviation shows promise for Generation Z

Some were introduced to aviation by a family member, friend, or mentor. Others simply tripped into the wonder of flight through chance or circumstance.

Historically, aviators did not discover aviation in high school. Until recently, there was no emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). High school aviation programs have been a rarity, with schools instead focusing on cars, farming, cosmetology, and a few other career paths.

Aviation is finally making its way into high schools through STEM, magnet, and other dedicated programs by teaching conventional graduation requirements in the context of this exciting industry. High schoolers can earn their diploma while simultaneously pursuing their passion for flight, priming them for college entry. Here are a few reasons why a high school student should consider a future in aviation:

  1. Aviation is an industry of growth. Aircraft manufacturers, airlines, and government agencies report that hundreds of thousands of pilots and mechanics will be needed in the next 20 years. Aviators will be highly sought after and hirable.
  2. Aviation is an industry of opportunity. Becoming a pilot isn’t the only option—many different career paths revolve around flight. Someone has to take care of the passengers and help the flight crew ensure a safe flight. That’s where dispatchers and ground and cabin crews come in. As the world recovers from the pandemic, travel will pick up once again, and people will need the attention and care of the crew to help them on their way to and from their destination.
  3. Aviation is an industry of evolution. Things are changing rapidly, and people are needed to design, build, maintain, purchase, repair, and fly not only the airplanes and helicopters of today, but the drones, autonomous vehicles, VTOL aircraft, urban air mobility, and commercial spacecraft of the near future. All these aircraft will need experts to keep them in the air and safely operating alongside each other and with existing manned aircraft already active within the national airspace system.
  4. Aviation is challenging. Not everyone can do it. It takes discipline balanced by creative thinking, study, practice, dedication, and perseverance to become an aviator. But right from the beginning, aviators will be rewarded with another dimension few career paths offer:
  5. Aviation is exciting! Sure literature, economics, and the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are all interesting—but compared to aviation? Come on! Top Gun! Heroes like Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger and Tammie Jo Shults! Humans have been pursuing flight for hundreds of years for the beauty, science, and awe of it all. With so many ways to fly and new technologies emerging every day, there’s never been a more exciting time to join the aviation ranks.



ASA has been providing trusted aviation training products for more than 80 years to students, pilots, flight instructors, aviation maintenance technicians, air traffic controllers, career aviators, remote pilots and drone operators. ASA’s pilot supplies, software, and publications are supported with integrity, consistency, superior customer service.

Bonanza V35 pilots take off on ambitious journeys

The two were geared up to depart on May 5. Eichhorn, who piloted his 1962 P model single-engine Bonanza around the world in 2016, gave Maeda a hug and advice before the Japanese pilot bowed to a crowd of about 20 well-wishers gathered for the sendoff at Manassas Regional Airport/Harry P. Davis Field.

“I told Shinji there are only two things that are certain: One is that things won’t go according to plan. The other is that you’ll become homesick,” Eichhorn said as photos were snapped, and last-minute details checked off. Sure enough, a cracked fuel line fitting and a line of thunderstorms across their planned routes delayed an intended formation departure until 10:10 a.m. Eastern time on May 6. To combat homesickness, Maeda has a laminated photo of his wife, Makiko; 4-year-old son, Tsubasa; and 8-month-old daughter, Sana, posted on his instrument panel.

Fellow Bonanza earthrounder Adam Broome (2016) flew in to wish both pilots well, and earthrounder Bill Harrelson (2019, 2015)  presented Eichhorn with a loud lime green alarm clock during a brief pre-departure ceremony May 5. Eichhorn also broke into a container of home-baked chocolate chip cookies presented to him with an additional weight and balance chart to account for the tasty snack’s additional payload. All four pilots posed for photos near their aircraft as the skies first brightened and then clouded over before afternoon downpours.

Shinji Maeda and Adrian Eichhorn are joined by earthrounders Bill Harrelson and Adam Broome during a sendoff at Manassas Regional Airport/Harry P. Davis Field in Virginia. Photo by David Tulis.

Maeda and Eichhorn plan to fly their V-tails in a loose formation to Bangor, Maine, then onward as far as Iceland so the mentor can continue to support his protégé with high frequency radio calls and some final encouragement.

Over the frigid North Atlantic Ocean, Eichhorn will continue north over the top of the world and the North Pole before turning south to Ladd Army Airfield in Fairbanks, Alaska, and then Portland, Oregon. Maeda, in a red 1963 P model named Lucy, will split off to the east toward Europe during an earthrounding flight through 16 countries. The flight itinerary originally included only 12 countries before the FAA denied a request for additional fuel ferry tanks and sent Maeda back to the drawing board to add additional stops and complexity, but it didn’t deter him.

Maeda said his longest leg should be eight to 10 hours in the Middle East, while Eichhorn was prepared for a 20-hour leg during his polar overflight. The pilots said their nearly new Continental IO-550B 300-horsepower engines were expected to burn about 13 gallons per hour at 170 knots between 9,000 and 11,000 feet and operate at lean of peak. Maeda estimated the global journey would span eight weeks and cost about $40,000 for fuel, oil, fees, and accommodations.

The native of Japan suffered a crushed optic nerve as a teenager after a motorcycle crash and a monthslong hospital stay. Maeda said he felt like his career aspirations were dashed after he learned that regulations prevented him from pursuing flight training in his home country.

Adrian Eichhorn helped coach Shinji Maeda for a solo around-the-world flight and will accompany him part of the way in a separate and nearly identical Beechcraft Bonanza V35 as they depart Manassas, Virginia, and fly north. Photo by David Tulis.

With encouragement from Maeda’s father, the road to recovery led to the United States and an aviation science degree from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Arizona. From there, a college flight instructor reignited Maeda’s passion for flight. The federal air surgeon granted Maeda a statement of demonstrated ability, and he earned a private pilot certificate, an instrument rating, and a commercial pilot certificate. He also became a certificated flight instructor. His father, who died three years ago, pushed Maeda to share his personal story of perseverance. “He said, ‘Son, you didn’t give up. You didn’t commit suicide. You didn’t back down. You have to meet a whole bunch of people to tell them your story of this wonderful life’” as an aviator.

His mother dictated the Japanese inscription “dreams come true, make it happen,” hand painted on the Bonanza’s red tail cone that was one of the final pieces of the earthrounding journey to fall into place.

His life experiences encouraged Maeda to become a motivational speaker. He plans to spread his messages of hope to others during downtime in Greenland, Norway, France, Greece, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, and Russia. Though the coronavirus pandemic has prevented public gatherings, Maeda is posting candid videos of his travels where he reveals his comedic personality, as well as serious advice about achieving one’s goals through determination, mentorship, and camaraderie. Maeda hopes his presence during a stopover in Japan may lead to reforms that could allow others to follow in his footsteps.

Maeda credits the U.S. aviation community for embracing him and supporting his hopes and aspirations. “This is my chance to pay it back to the aviation community. We all need hope, and we need a dream,” he said, pointing to the pandemic as proof that people are hungry for some good news. After a one-year pandemic-induced delay, Maeda said he was ready to go.

Maeda said he’s been repeating a phrase to psyche himself up as the departure neared. “‘This is it, Shinji, now it’s showtime,’” and he is ready to fly. “My message is that ‘you can do it.’”

Shinji Maeda relaxes on the wing of "Lucy," a 1963 Beechcraft Bonanza V35. Photo by David Tulis.

Dassault debuts Falcon 10X

The 10X will be the most superlative Falcon jet to date, with a number of firsts. To address customer feedback, Dassault Chairman and CEO Eric Trappier said that the 10X will have a 7,500-nautical-mile maximum range—the longest of any Falcon. “Customers always want more range,” said Trappier. “So that’s where we began in the design process.”

The 10X will also have new engines, newly designed wings, and more capacious interiors. For the first time, Dassault has chosen Rolls-Royce as its engine partner, using its new Pearl 10X engines with 18,000 pounds of thrust. “Rolls-Royce has the right competency and technology for the airplane,” Trappier said.

Rolls-Royce Chief Executive Warren East explained that the Pearl 10X was built with high efficiency and low noise as prime objectives. The engine uses single-piece blisks (combined blades and discs), 3D printed combustor elements, and core elements that are lighter, have single-crystal metallurgy, create less drag, and use new materials and coatings to provide what East called “the most efficient core to date.” The engines will be 5 percent more efficient than any previous jet engine, and will be capable of burning ecologically friendly sustainable aviation fuels. So far, the Pearl 10X has successfully logged 500 hours and 1,000 cycles using biofuels on test stands.

Rolls-Royce designed a new engine core with bladed discs that will increase efficiency and thrust compared to previous models. The Pearl 10X will be the first Rolls-Royce engine on a Falcon jet. Image courtesy of Dassault Aviation. In another departure from traditional Falcon design, the 10X’s wings will be made of carbon fiber to save weight and have a wider span and greater sweep angles than previous Falcons. Together with the airplane’s flaps and slats, this will allow the airplane to cruise efficiently at high speeds yet preserve the Falcon’s traditional low-speed handling characteristics and short-field performance.

Falcon 10X test pilots gave a brief tour of the virtual 10X cockpit, which featured a new, single-lever thrust control for the airplane’s twin Pearl engines, as well as dual head-up displays, an auto-recovery mode to deal with unusual attitude recovery, and reclining pilot seats. As with the Falcons 7X, 6X, and 8X, the 10X will have a digital flight control system—fly-by-wire—which Trappier said has proven itself with 900,000 flight hours in the Falcon fleet.

The cabin is the longest, tallest, and widest of any Falcon to date, with larger windows and a standard, four-zone floor plan. Cabin pressure at 41,000 feet will be a comfortable 3,000 feet. There are tables for every seat, an entertainment center with wide-screen TV and surround sound, and an aft bedroom area with a full closet, a seating area, and an ensuite bathroom and shower. “It’s a penthouse in the sky,” said a Dassault interior design official. “This is at the top of business jets,” echoed Trappier.

The 10X had been rumored for some time. While impressive on its own merits, the airplane must also be viewed as an answer to Bombardier’s Global 7500, which also sports luxury—as well as a 7,700-nm max range. And Dassault’s choice of Rolls-Royce can be construed as a snub to Safran, whose Silvercrest engine proved so problematic that it caused delays, and ultimately the cancellation, of Dassault’s Falcon 5X program in 2017.

The 10X is set for entry into service in 2025.

Avoiding Hard Landings

May 6, 2021

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In this video, Avoiding Hard Landings, ASI examines key causes that lead to hard landings, which can cause structural damage that extends to the firewall and engine mount, fuselage skin, wings, and so on. Also learn tips for making smooth landings that your passengers—and your pocketbook—will appreciate.

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